The stabilization of the spine 🏋 is controlled by 3 subsystems. The system works as a feedback loop to create stability through the spine during static and dynamic movements. 1️⃣ Passive Subsystem - Composed of the ligaments, vertebrae, joint capsules and intervertebral discs - Ligaments provide end-range stability against spinal motion - The passive subsystem acts as a proprioceptive system which measures vertebral positions and motions - The system is passive only in the sense that by itself it does not generate or produce spinal motions, but it is dynamically active in monitoring proprioceptive input 2️⃣ Active Subsystem - Composed of muscles and tendons through which the spinal system generates forces and provides the required stability to the spine - Magnitude of force generated in each muscle is a result of the requirements imposed by the passive subsystem 3️⃣ Neural Subsystem - Receives information from the various receptors in the passive subsystem, determines specific requirements for spinal stability, and causes the active subsystem to achieve the stability goal -------------------------------------------- There are times when the stabilizing system becomes dysfunctional due to less than optimal function of one or more of the subsystems. 🔹The passive subsystem can be affected by ligament sprains, tears of the annular fibres of the intervertebral discs, disc herniations and other injuries that affect the passive elements of the spinal column. 🔹The active subsystem may develop a disconnect in its ability to receive or carry out the neural commands or produce coordinated and adequate muscle tensions. 🔹The neural subsystem is extremely complex and continuously monitors and adjusts the forces of the muscles around the spine with dynamic activity. Errors of this system will influence the active subsystem to not recruit enough muscle force for stabilization, or conversely, overload the passive structures with too much force.
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