keratin

This hashtag in English

Last updated 18w.

Keratin (/ˈkɛrətɪn/) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins known as scleroproteins. α-Keratin is a type of keratin found in vertebrates. It is the key structural material making up scales, hair, nails, feathers, horns, claws, hooves, calluses, and the outer layer of skin among vertebrates. Keratin also protects epithelial cells from damage or stress. Keratin is extremely insoluble in water and organic solvents. Keratin monomers assemble into bundles to form intermediate filaments, which are tough and form strong unmineralized epidermal appendages found in reptiles, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Excessive keratinization participate in fortification of certain tissues such as in horns of cattle and rhinos, and armadillos' osteoderm. The only other biological matter known to approximate the toughness of keratinized tissue is chitin. Keratin comes in two types, the primitive, softer forms found in all vertebrates and harder, derived forms found only among sauropsids (reptiles and birds). Keratin resists digestion, which is why cats regurgitate hairballs.

Spider silk is classified as keratin, although production of the protein may have evolved independently of the process in vertebrates.

Horns such as those of the impala are made of keratin covering a core of bone.

Keratin filaments are abundant in keratinocytes in the hornified layer of the epidermis; these are proteins which have undergone keratinization. They are also present in epithelial cells in general. For example, mouse thymic epithelial cells react with antibodies for keratin 5, keratin 8, and keratin 14. These antibodies are used as fluorescent markers to distinguish subsets of mouse thymic epithelial cells in genetic studies of the thymus.

The baleen plates of filter-feeding whales are made of keratin.

Keratins (also described as cytokeratins) are polymers of type I and type II intermediate filaments that have been found only in chordates (vertebrates, amphioxus, urochordates). Nematodes and many other non-chordate animals seem to have only type VI intermediate filaments, fibers that structure the nucleus.

The human genome encodes 54 functional keratin genes, located in two clusters on chromosomes 12 and 17. This suggests that they originated from a series of gene duplications on these chromosomes.

The keratins include the following proteins of which KRT23, KRT24, KRT25, KRT26, KRT27, KRT28, KRT31, KRT32, KRT33A, KRT33B, KRT34, KRT35, KRT36, KRT37, KRT38, KRT39, KRT40, KRT71, KRT72, KRT73, KRT74, KRT75, KRT76, KRT77, KRT78, KRT79, KRT8, KRT80, KRT81, KRT82, KRT83, KRT84, KRT85 and KRT86 have been used to describe keratins past 20.

The first sequences of keratins were determined by Israel Hanukoglu and Elaine Fuchs (1982, 1983). These sequences revealed that there are two distinct but homologous keratin families, which were named type I and type II keratins. By analysis of the primary structures of these keratins and other intermediate filament proteins, Hanukoglu and Fuchs suggested a model in which keratins and intermediate filament proteins contain a central ~310 residue domain with four segments in α-helical conformation that are separated by three short linker segments predicted to be in beta-turn conformation. This model has been confirmed by the determination of the crystal structure of a helical domain of keratins.

Fibrous keratin molecules supercoil to form a very stable, left-handed superhelical motif to multimerise, forming filaments consisting of multiple copies of the keratin monomer.

The major force that keeps the coiled-coil structure is hydrophobic interactions between apolar residues along the keratins helical segments.

Limited interior space is the reason why the triple helix of the (unrelated) structural protein collagen, found in skin, cartilage and bone, likewise has a high percentage of glycine. The connective tissue protein elastin also has a high percentage of both glycine and alanine. Silk fibroin, considered a β-keratin, can have these two as 75–80% of the total, with 10–15% serine, with the rest having bulky side groups. The chains are antiparallel, with an alternating C → N orientation. A preponderance of amino acids with small, nonreactive side groups is characteristic of structural proteins, for which H-bonded close packing is more important than chemical specificity.

In addition to intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, the distinguishing feature of keratins is the presence of large amounts of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine, required for the disulfide bridges that confer additional strength and rigidity by permanent, thermally stable crosslinking—in much the same way that non-protein sulfur bridges stabilize vulcanized rubber. Human hair is approximately 14% cysteine. The pungent smells of burning hair and skin are due to the volatile sulfur compounds formed. Extensive disulfide bonding contributes to the insolubility of keratins, except in a small number of solvents such as dissociating or reducing agents.

The more flexible and elastic keratins of hair have fewer interchain disulfide bridges than the keratins in mammalian fingernails, hooves and claws (homologous structures), which are harder and more like their analogs in other vertebrate classes. Hair and other α-keratins consist of α-helically coiled single protein strands (with regular intra-chain H-bonding), which are then further twisted into superhelical ropes that may be further coiled. The β-keratins of reptiles and birds have β-pleated sheets twisted together, then stabilized and hardened by disulfide bridges.

It has been proposed that keratins can be divided into 'hard' and 'soft' forms, or 'cytokeratins' and 'other keratins'.[clarification needed] That model is now understood to be correct. A new nuclear addition in 2006 to describe keratins takes this into account.

Keratin filaments are intermediate filaments. Like all intermediate filaments, keratin proteins form filamentous polymers in a series of assembly steps beginning with dimerization; dimers assemble into tetramers and octamers and eventually, if the current hypothesis holds, into unit-length-filaments (ULF) capable of annealing end-to-end into long filaments.

Cornification is the process of forming an epidermal barrier in stratified squamous epithelial tissue. At the cellular level, cornification is characterised by:

Metabolism ceases, and the cells are almost completely filled by keratin. During the process of epithelial differentiation, cells become cornified as keratin protein is incorporated into longer keratin intermediate filaments. Eventually the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles disappear, metabolism ceases and cells undergo a programmed death as they become fully keratinized. In many other cell types, such as cells of the dermis, keratin filaments and other intermediate filaments function as part of the cytoskeleton to mechanically stabilize the cell against physical stress. It does this through connections to desmosomes, cell–cell junctional plaques, and hemidesmosomes, cell-basement membrane adhesive structures.

Cells in the epidermis contain a structural matrix of keratin, which makes this outermost layer of the skin almost waterproof, and along with collagen and elastin gives skin its strength. Rubbing and pressure cause thickening of the outer, cornified layer of the epidermis and form protective calluses, which are useful for athletes and on the fingertips of musicians who play stringed instruments. Keratinized epidermal cells are constantly shed and replaced.

These hard, integumentary structures are formed by intercellular cementing of fibers formed from the dead, cornified cells generated by specialized beds deep within the skin. Hair grows continuously and feathers molt and regenerate. The constituent proteins may be phylogenetically homologous but differ somewhat in chemical structure and supermolecular organization. The evolutionary relationships are complex and only partially known. Multiple genes have been identified for the β-keratins in feathers, and this is probably characteristic of all keratins.

The silk fibroins produced by insects and spiders are often classified as keratins, though it is unclear whether they are phylogenetically related to vertebrate keratins.

Silk found in insect pupae, and in spider webs and egg casings, also has twisted β-pleated sheets incorporated into fibers wound into larger supermolecular aggregates. The structure of the spinnerets on spiders’ tails, and the contributions of their interior glands, provide remarkable control of fast extrusion. Spider silk is typically about 1 to 2 micrometers (µm) thick, compared with about 60 µm for human hair, and more for some mammals. The biologically and commercially useful properties of silk fibers depend on the organization of multiple adjacent protein chains into hard, crystalline regions of varying size, alternating with flexible, amorphous regions where the chains are randomly coiled. A somewhat analogous situation occurs with synthetic polymers such as nylon, developed as a silk substitute. Silk from the hornet cocoon contains doublets about 10 µm across, with cores and coating, and may be arranged in up to 10 layers, also in plaques of variable shape. Adult hornets also use silk as a glue, as do spiders.

Some infectious fungi, such as those that cause athlete's foot and ringworm (i.e. the dermatophytes) feed on keratin.

Diseases caused by mutations in the keratin genes include:

Keratin expression is helpful in determining epithelial origin in anaplastic cancers. Tumors that express keratin include carcinomas, thymomas, sarcomas and trophoblastic neoplasms. Furthermore, the precise expression-pattern of keratin subtypes allows prediction of the origin of the primary tumor when assessing metastases. For example, hepatocellular carcinomas typically express K8 and K18, and cholangiocarcinomas express K7, K8 and K18, while metastases of colorectal carcinomas express K20, but not K7.

Keratin is highly resistant to digestive acids if ingested, as occurs in the human disorder trichophagia. Thus, cats (which groom themselves with their tongues) regularly ingest hair, leading to the gradual formation of a hairball that may be vomited. Rapunzel syndrome, an extremely rare but potentially fatal intestinal condition in humans, is caused by trichophagia.

Respect Artists! #Keratin #Plagiarism
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Cartoonist Adam Ellis Claims Short Film, Keratin, Plagiarized His Work
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@CorbinRainbolt Thank you! I took really experimental route with its keratin horns and made them turn "brushy" at the apex.
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寝起きにご飯食べないで ウェハース食べるフォロワーさんいるんだよなぁ…
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keratin yağı saçını düzleştirmez kalıcı fön de keratin yağı kullanılır aptaaaalllll🤦‍♀️🤦‍♀️🤦‍♀️
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@keratin_i 本人いいね じわる
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パトラが好き 僕にはそれしかないけど… それしかないからこそに 時間も心も全てを彼女に注ぐんだよ
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İlk keratin yaptırdığımda saçlarım sonsuza kadar düz kalacak sanmıstım 🥲
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eski manitten keratin almıştım haram etmiş herhalde kafam yanıyo🥺😜🤪
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#tbt #ThrowbackThursday always nice to make the cover @JIDJournals Flotillin and AP2A1/2 Promote IGF-1 Receptor…
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@rtkowaimajide40 改めて本人さんのページ飛んで メディア覗くと ここ最近推しよりもウェハースの写真で溢れかえってるのが余計に面白いですwww
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@keratin_i リアル わしゃがなTV
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RT @WeAreDN: Co-directors Andrew Butler and James Wilson detail the visual inspiration behind the bleak, lonely atmosphere of their isolate…
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@ZySavy Unfortunately it is. Especially with the way she laid it down i cant imagine the tension on the follicles.…
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肺・縦隔でhCG(+)でそういう組織型なら縦隔choriocarcinomaあるいはpleomorphic carcinomaのhCG産生タイプ、転移なんかを考える。どっちもkeratinが染まってくるからTTF-1が染まってくるなら後者だしそうじゃないなら鑑別は難しい(?)
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@AttirantAce @CruzanChoklate Hell yeah. I have it chemically straightened now w / Keratin. But my hair didn’t start…
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RT @tania15405832: Descubre Remington S8590 Keratin Therapy Pro - Plancha de Pelo Profesional, Cerámica, Digital, Keratina, Aceite Almendra…
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@niyatis25 @FTTUD4D3cm5uUNX Craniopharyngioma with wet keratin palisading cells stellate reticulum WHO GRADE 1
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Yes I cried in the middle of math work but I can’t even find the reason why lolz
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#unikaneh #pati > Tanduk badak terbuat dari keratin.
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@keratin_i お気持ち、とっても嬉しいです。 ぶちまけたい気持ちは多分にあります。 ですが、私の努力不足だとも自分で痛感しております。 背負ってしまった以上は建設的な案を考えなければと思います。 少し楽になりました。 本…
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RT @Survival_step: The Rogues should've been in TSR too
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RT @Survival_step: Knock Knock It's A Goth
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RT @Survival_step: I've just been thinking a lot about teenage Tails realising she's a trans girl recently
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My hair has always been straight with minimal waves (not thin but not thick either) and ever since I hit my 30s my…
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@OSHCULT The keratin keeps growing
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冗談は言えるけど嘘は言えんなぁ…
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@bullsheetyx Bukan kering sih Na, lebih ke gak ada keratin gitu. Itu sbnrnya lembab dan halus krna ku kasih conditi…
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10 dk once agliyodum suan saclarima keratin surdum bornozla kendime turk kahvesi yapıyorum evde tek basima icicem 🥰
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RT @thecoopertom: Don't ever let me ski.
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@Patra_HNST 素敵なASMR動画を今日もありがとう! 好きな音をゆっくりじっくり聴けて とても癒される時間だったよ~! 録音も動画編集もお疲れ様、ありがとう!
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今夜も素敵な時間をありがとう! 寒くて仕事疲れが溜まってたけど、心もぽかぽかして とっても癒されたよ~! 落ち着いてて柔らかくい母性溢れる声で優しい気持ちになれたし本当に凄い動画だね……たくさんの愛をありがとう! #パトライブ
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@GrumpySkeletor @ReynardCity Someone swapped his keratin tablets didn't they?
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At home #keratin treatments are best for do-it-yourselfers who don't want to sacrifice style. #hairstyle #straighthair
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@TammyTammycat Honestly tell me if you want a giant hunk of hard keratin anywhere near your genitals.
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やっぱりDACの出力下げるとアンプチンチンになるなぁ……缶コーヒー置いといたら丁度良い温度になるんじゃないか
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RT @HeraUrGod: Loving my sub funded hair keratin treatment 🖤
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Keratin Treatment at Home for Straight, smooth, shiny and Healthy Hair .....(ENG SUB) - YouTube
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Hair Botox and Brazilian Keratin Treatment both create a smoothing effect, eliminate frizz, and significantly reduce styling time. However, Hair Botox doesn’t contain formaldehyde and other harsh chemicals that can be found in traditional keratin treatment products.
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Why Get A Keratin Lash Lift? — Blume Beauty Co. | skin. brows. lashes.
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What Is a Keratin Treatment and How Does It Work?
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keratin Pinterest Ideas
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